From Andries van den Berg:
Re: Instead of “dark matter,” rogue planets? (May 13): I really hope the idea turns out to be true. Furthermore, I hope that the idea of a big bang will be shown to be misleading. Although most astronomers will probably laugh at the following idea, it needs rethinking: Redshift is a reasonable indicater for distance from earth, however it is not a reliable indicater of speed relative to the earth. Redshift does have a speed component, but the larger component is probably correlated with the number of times that an electro-magnetic wave passed billions of material objects on its path towards earth. Lightwaves of which the path has been bent by gravity many many times, probably also had its frequency reduced (very very sligtly and probably not presently detectable by us) many many times. The idea of an infinite universe with regard to time and space seems to be more parsimonious than a big bang theory.
Andries van den Berg